Frequently Asked Questions

CBD use has become increasingly popular over the last couple of years as a natural alternative. Here, we’ll answer some of the most pressing questions related to CBD.

What is CBD?
CBD is short for Cannabidiol and is one of over 120 active chemical compounds known as cannabinoids in the Cannabis plant. CBD is the most abundant cannabinoid in hemp varieties. CBD is a non-intoxicating component of the cannabis plant with enormous therapeutic potential. CBD has many health benefits, without producing the psychoactive, “euphoric” effects of THC. “Relaxing but not intoxicating” is how many people have described the effect.

Researchers are currently studying the efficacy of CBD on a wide range of conditions including chronic pain, insomnia, PTSD, anxiety, epilepsy, dementia and more.

CB1 and CB2 receptors are two known receptors.

CB1 receptors are in the central nervous system and in some peripheral tissues. Affect appetite, muscle control, pain, cognition, thermoregulation, and our stress response.

CB2 receptors are found in immune cells primarily, and at a lower density in the central nervous system. Affect immune function, immune cell proliferation, inflammation, and pain.

There are more cannabinoid receptors being examined.

What is the difference between Hemp and Marijuana?
In the US, the legal definition of “industrial hemp,” (as defined in Section 7606 of the Agricultural Appropriations Act of 2014), is “the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of such plant, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.”

There are two varieties of Cannabis, Sativa and Indica. Hemp is Cannabis Sativa and marijuana is Cannabis Indica and crosses of Indica and Sativa. Hemp is considered “industrial” under current regulations, and is defined as any cannabis plant having less than 0.3% THC.

Does CBD come from Marijuana or Hemp?
All CBD-based products come from the industrial hemp plant. Hemp is considered all variety of cannabis that contains high quantities of CBD and less than 0.3% of THC. If a hemp plant contains more than 0.3% THC, it is then technically considered a marijuana.

Will CBD get me high?
No, CBD will not get you high. It’s non-intoxicating. CBD has a different functional group that is non-intoxicating. Research shows CBD can act as an antagonistic to THC and prevent THC from binding to CB-1 receptors in the brain.

Cannabidiol (CBD) has many health benefits, without producing the psychoactive, “euphoric” effects of THC. “Relaxing but not intoxicating” is how some people have described the effect.

How do I know it’s safe to purchase online?
You should make sure the company you’re buying from is reputable and that the product was made from industrial hemp with less than 0.3% THC content with Certificates of Analysis (CoA).

Three main forms of CBD extract. What is the difference?
Full Spectrum: Also known as whole-plant CBD extract, full-spectrum CBD extract is a mix of CBD, other cannabinoids, cannabis-derived terpenes, and flavonoids. Federally legal full-spectrum products will always have less than 0.3 percent THC. Full-spectrum CBD is less processed and more natural, and the products also contain flavonoids and terpenes, which are beneficial compounds that provide unique scents and flavors.

Broad Spectrum: Contains a similar spectrum of all of the cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids, but has undergone further processing to remove the THC.

Isolate: Often known as raw CBD, isolate has had all other cannabinoids and terpenes stripped away until all that’s left is a crystalline powder of pure CBD. To create an oil, crystalline CBD powder is usually mixed with a carrier oil such as coconut or olive oil. CBD isolates with a purity range of 99.9% and above won’t

have trace amounts of THC, whereas a CBD isolate of 99.5% and below may still have traces of THC.

How many cannabinoids are there in a hemp plant?
There are more than 120 naturally occurring cannabinoids known to exist in the hemp plant. Hemp’s other promising cannabinoids, including Cannabigerol (CBG), Cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabinol (CBN) are only a few examples of other cannabinoids that have shown to have health benefits.

Is CBD Tinctures same as CBD Oil?
Unlike CBD oil, tinctures contain low potency of CBD. Tinctures have a long shelf life and dosage varies from user to user. CBD tinctures have a higher bioavailability as compared to CBD oil. It is due to the presence of alcohol in tinctures.

What is Full Spectrum Hemp Extract?
Full-spectrum extracts, maintain the full profile of the hemp plant being extracted and will contain a variety of cannabinoids, including CBGa, CBG, Δ9-THCa, Δ9-THC, CBDa, CBD, CBN, CBC, and Δ8-THC, just to name a few. There are other compounds as well such as terpenes and flavonoids which gives the plant and extract its smell and taste.

We formulate our products using high quality CBD concentrate diluted to precise concentrations with oils like coconut, olive, or hemp seed and in some cases a flavoring.

How do I take my Full Spectrum Hemp Extract?
Full Spectrum Hemp Extracts are taken sublingually, by placing a dose under the tongue and held there for 30-60seconds, where it is absorbed through the mucous membrane in the mouth. To better understand what you’re taking read the label and look for milligrams per milliliter (mg/mL). This is the amount of CBD in each dropper full.

What is the 2018 Farm Bill and what did it do? The 2018 Farm Bill, signed into law by President Donald Trump on Dec. 20, 2018, legalized industrial hemp, which must contain less than 0.3% THC according to federal guidelines. Only CBD oil derived from hemp is considered federally legal.

The 2018 Farm Bill provides support, certainty, and stability to our nation’s farmers, ranchers, and forest managers by enhancing farm support programs, improving crop insurance, maintaining disaster programs, and promoting and supporting voluntary conservation.

The bill legalizes the cultivation and sale of hemp at the federal level, effective January 1, 2019. This will have important ramifications not only for the hemp industry in the United States, but also for business involving cannabidiol (CBD).

As a result of the 2018 Farm Bill farmers in the U.S. can now grow hemp under certain regulated situations. The USDA National Organic Program (NOP) has also confirmed that hemp managed organically can be certified organic.

There is more legislation pending. Some want to expand on the farm bill definition. While other legislation looks to legalize Cannabis nationally.

Is CBD legal?
“Federal law prohibits U.S. farmers from cultivating hemp as a commercial crop, but the sale of imported, low-THC, industrial hemp products is permitted in the United States.” Technically, this means that as long as the CBD product (oil, vape, topical, etc) is produced from the seeds and stalk of the industrial hemp plant (with less than 0.3% THC), it is permissible to buy, sell, and ship across state lines. All in all, the fact remains that millions of people buy and use CBD products every day of their lives, and this option is only getting more popular and widespread with each passing day.

What is cGMP Certification and why is it important?
cGMP refers to the Current Good Manufacturing Practice, a standard set by the FDA. cGMP provides guidance for a systematic approach that assures proper design, monitoring, and control of manufacturing processes and facilities. Adherence to cGMP standards assures the identity, strength, quality, and purity of products by requiring that manufacturers of adequately control manufacturing operations. This includes establishing strong quality management systems, obtaining appropriate quality raw materials, establishing robust operating procedures, detecting and investigating product quality deviations, and maintaining reliable testing laboratories.

What is a CoA and why is it important?
A Certificate of Analysis, or CoA, is a document from an accredited laboratory that shows the quantity of various cannabinoids in a product. Manufacturers should send every batch of every product they make to a lab for testing, to protect their customers and prove that their products have as much CBD as they advertise.

The Certificate of Analysis, or CoA, helps ensure that a manufacturer’s products are made to specification, and indicates the quantity of cannabinoids found in each product, like CBD. In addition to cannabinoids, this certificate should show details on the levels of heavy metals, pesticides, solvents, and THC found in an individual batch of products. COAs are meant to keep customers safe and informed, but they also help emphasize quality.

What is Organic Certification? USDA Organic for a farm operation to be Certified Organic, it must avoid synthetic chemical inputs (such as synthetic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides), sewage sludge as a fertilizer and genetically modified (GMO) seed.

Organic products must meet the following requirements: Produced without excluded methods, (e.g., genetic engineering, ionizing radiation, or sewage sludge). … Overseen by a USDA National Organic Program-authorized certifying agent, following all USDA organic regulations.

Organic has a precise meaning under the USDA’s organic program. Certified 100% Organic means that all the ingredients in a product have been grown or raised according to the USDA’s organic standards, which are the rules for producing foods labeled organic.

What is CBD used for?
People are finding that CBD is useful for many conditions which have not responded well to conventual treatments. New ailments which CBD can help treat are being discovered every day. However, the most common uses of CBD are treatment of chronic pain, anxiety, and epilepsy.

Is CBD natural?
Yes, CBD is a 100% naturally-occurring chemical compound that comes directly from the cannabis plant. It is not synthetically made.

What are CBD edibles?
CBD edibles are food products infused with CBD. Common CBD edibles products are chocolates, gummy bears, or CBD gum. CBD edibles are an oral route of administration of CBD.

What are CBD gummies?
CBD gummies are a form of a CBD edible: a food product (in this case gummies) infused with CBD.

What is hemp extract?
Hemp extract refers to the raw extract which is taken from a hemp plant for later processing into CBD oil or CBD products. The most common methods of extraction are CO2 and ethanol extraction.

What is CBD oil?
CBD oil is a liquid cannabis extract that contains virtually pure CBD. It’s commonly made from seeds of the hemp plant (CBD hemp oil) and the stem of industrial hemp.

How do I take CBD?
Most CBD products are taken orally via oil drops that are placed under the tongue and held for 60 seconds before swallowing. Topical creams and ointments are also effective.

How does CBD work?
CBD functions by binding to cannabinoid receptors in the body’s endocannabinoid system. These receptors have been found in virtually every cell and tissue type in the human body (hence the seemingly endless array of CBD uses).

Is CBD oil addictive?
While nearly anything in the world can be addictive, no CBD is not known to be an addictive drug. In fact, CBD has shown strong potential to be a useful tool to help people break addictions to harmful substances.

What is a CBD tincture?
A CBD tincture is another term for a CBD oil. In the cannabis industry the word “tincture” and “oil” are used interchangeably. A CBD tincture or CBD oil is a liquid concentrate which contains CBD.

How do you take a CBD tincture?
CBD tinctures are taken by placing the dose under the tongue where it can be absorbed sublingually – through the mucous membrane in the mouth.

How long do you keep CBD tincture under your tongue?
Try to keep the CBD tincture under your tongue for 30 – 60 seconds. The longer you can hold, usually the better it will absorb.

What is CBD vape oil?
A CBD vape oil or CBD e juice is a liquid made for vaping which is infused with CBD.

What is a CBD topical?
CBD topicals have proven effective for a number of circumstances. Many individuals swear by them.

Can I give my pet CBD (my dog, cat, etc.)?
Yes. Pets can benefit from CBD for many of the same conditions as humans: pain, seizures, inflammation, and anxiety. CBD is safe to use for pets but their dosage will likely be much smaller than yours. Dogs have a higher concentration of cannabinoid receptors in their brain. This means they are very sensitive to THC. But a small amount of THC, like the amount in a full spectrum CBD hemp oil,

is beneficial for animals. We recommend you speak with a veterinarian (holistic veterinarian) before you start giving your pet CBD.

How do I know what dosage of CBD to take?
This one is tricky because it, of course, depends on what you’re trying to accomplish and also on how strong the product is. Again, we recommend you take a look at the label and know how many milligrams are in each milliliter. Take a few small doses over the course of the day rather than one big dose. Use the same dose for several days. Observe the effects and if necessary, adjust the amount, as necessary.

How to choose a CBD product?
Make sure the product you buy has been third party lab tested for the 3 P’s Potency (how much CBD is in it), Purity (any residual solvents from extraction process) and Pesticides. Third party lab testing should be available on the product website as CoA-Certificate of Analysis.

CBD-rich products should be lab tested to verify they are free of pesticides, and other contaminants. Best to avoid products extracted with toxic solvents like BHO, propane, hexane or other hydrocarbons. Look for products that utilize cleaner extraction methods such as supercritical CO2.

What are terpenes?
Terpenes are essential oils found in plants. There are around 200 terpenes in cannabis. They are what give cannabis its distinct aroma and flavor. Terpenes have beneficial effects and work synergistically with cannabinoids like CBD and THC – this relationship is called the entourage effect.

What is CBD isolate?
CBD isolate or otherwise called “pure CBD” is the CBD molecule separated from the the rest of the compounds it normally occurs with. CBD isolate usually appears as a crystalline white powder. CBD isolate can either be synthesized in a lab (synthetic CBD) or made from a CBD containing plant like marijuana or hemp.

What is CBD powder?
“CBD powder” likely refers to CBD isolate. *See “What is CBD Isolate?” Question.

How long does it take for CBD to take effect?
The length of time it takes for CBD to take effect will depend on the route of administration. The fastest effect will be felt from smoking or vaporization (onset of effects in minutes). Topical administration of CBD will be felt quickly as well. The next fastest effect will be felt from a sublingual dosage.

Do you need a prescription for CBD?
No. CBD is not an FDA approved pharmaceutical or dietary supplement. You may purchase CBD without a prescription.

Can anyone buy CBD oil?
Yes. Anyone living in a state or country where it is legal to use CBD can buy CBD oil if over 18 years of age. CBD oil may be purchased over the counter without a prescription.

Is CBD oil addictive?
While nearly anything in the world can be addictive, no CBD is not known to be an addictive drug. In fact, CBD has shown strong potential to be a useful tool to help people break addictions to harmful substances.

How is CBD isolaed from the Cannabis Plant?
CO2 extraction is the best method to extract pure CBD isolate, in which state it exists as a clear/white crystal. This method is preferred over other methods because it leaves practically zero traces of chemical contaminants in the end product. Alcohol extraction is another method, wherein a liquid such as ethanol, butane, or hexane is run through raw plant material to extract the CBD and then evaporated to leave only the active cannabinoid. This can be a dangerous method because it’s prone to leaving excess traces of the butane or hexane chemicals in the extract. Also, infusing vegetable oil (i.e. olive oil) is another effective way of extracting CBD. All you do is grind up the raw plant material, decarboxylate (heat) it, and let it sit in boiling (100-deg Celsius) oil for about 2 hours.

Is CBD safe?
CBD oils produced by CO2 extraction are much safer and purer than oils that were produced with liquid alcohol/thinning agents. Other than that, most research has concluded that CBD is perfectly safe with no known side effects, though some users have reported drowsiness, lightheadedness, low blood pressure, and dry mouth.

Can I cook with CBD?
Absolutely! CBD infused oils are a fantastic ingredient to cook with.

CBD studies?
Thousands of scientific studies have been carried out specifically on CBD. Project CBD is a non-profit organization strictly dedicated to documenting the research progress on this incredible drug.

Fasinu PS, Phillips S, ElSohly MA, Walker LA. Current Status and Prospects for Cannabidiol Preparations as New Therapeutic Agents. Pharmacotherapy 2016;36(7):781-96.

Campos AC, Fogaça MV, Scarante FF, Joca SRL, Sales AJ, Gomes FV, Sonego AB, Rodrigues NS, Galve-Roperh I, Guimarães FS. Plastic and Neuroprotective Mechanisms Involved in the Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol in Psychiatric Disorders. Front Pharmacol. 2017 May 23;8:269.

Szaflarski JP, Bebin EM, Cannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy—from receptors to clinical response. Epilepsy Behav. 2014;41:277-82 Miller RJ, Miller RE. Is cannabis an effective treatment for joint pain? Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017 Sep-Oct;35 Suppl 107(5):59-67. Epub 2017 Sep 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 28967368

Source: World Health Organization, WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence, Thirty-ninth Meeting Geneva, 6-10 November 2017.

Safety and side effects of cannabidiol (NCBI/NIH). Curr Drug Saf. 2011 Sep 1;6(4):237-49. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Bergamaschi MM(1), Queiroz RH, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA

Sources: Spelman K. “Silver Bullet” Drugs vs. Traditional Herbal Remedies: Perspectives on Malaria. HG J Am Bot Coun 84:44-55.

Russo EB. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;163(7):1344-64.

Shimon Ben-Shabat S, Fride E, Sheskin T,Tamiri T, Rhee MH, Vogel Z. Bisogno T,De Petrocellis LD, Di Marzo V, Mechoulam R. An entourage effect: inactive endogenous fatty acid glycerol esters enhance 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol cannabinoid activity. Euro J Pharmacol. 1998;353:23–31.

Author Bio: Ginevra Liptan, MD, developed fibromyalgia while in medical school. She is a graduate of Tufts University School of Medicine and board-certified in internal medicine. Dr. Liptan is the founder and medical director of The Frida Center for Fibromyalgia and the author of The FibroManual: A Complete Fibromyalgia Treatment Guide For You…And Your Doctor and The Fibro Food Formula: A Real-Life Approach to Fibromyalgia Relief.

Gut Biome here helpful articles: National Center for Biotechnology Information – The Human Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease Abbot – Gut Health: What Is The Microbiome?

Will CBD show up on drug test?
A high-quality CBD product with minimal THC is incredibly unlikely to show up on a drug test. However, low quality CBD products may contain more traces of THC than they claim, in which case it is possible for a screening to pick up on the drug. (Research has shown that people who consume 6 mg of THC per day have

a 25% chance of failing a drug test. This translates to about 2,000 mg per day of CBD oil with a THC content of 0.3% or less).

How does CBD interact with the endocannabinoid system? And what the heck is the endocannabinoid system, anyway?

The “endocannabinoid” system is an integral part of our neuro-immuno-endocrine network. This is the system of organ and tissue signaling in the human body that sends and receives chemical messages. The primary capacity of the endocannabinoid system is to regulate bodily functions and maintain the body’s homeostasis (intrinsic stable state). The bodily functions governed include but are not limited to bone growth, immune response, memory, motor function, appetite, digestion, inflammation, protection of neural tissues, blood pressure, pain, and internal and external injuries.

The endocannabinoid system’s intention is the same throughout: to help the body achieve and maintain homeostasis. The body’s internal mechanisms are in constant daily flux through external environmental changes. That is why having a balanced endocannabinoid system is essential if one wants to have a balanced body and lifestyle.

Our bodies produce their own cannabinoids—endocannabinoids—primarily anandamide, and 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol). A “Phyto cannabinoid” or plant-derived cannabinoid like CBD or THC can activate the same receptors in the body and have similar or stronger effects than our endocannabinoids.

We know the very specific receptors that THC activates in the body, primarily CB1 and CB2 receptors in the brain, but are still learning all the different rectors CBD interact with- one research article estimated CBD may interact with 65 different receptors in the human body, leading scientists refer to CBD as a “promiscuous” compound.

Regardless of the bodily function, the endocannabinoid system’s intention is the same throughout: to help the body achieve and maintain homeostasis. The body’s internal mechanisms are in constant daily flux through external environmental changes. That is why having a balanced endocannabinoid system is essential if one wants to have a balanced body and lifestyle.

What is the gut microbiome?
There are trillions of microorganisms that exist within the human gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) comprised of protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and some viruses. The complexity of this microbiome is responsible for a number of direct and indirect functions in the body including functional digestion, helping control the immune system, controlling brain health, overall nutrition, sleep and mood, inflammation and infection in the body, and skin health just to n

The management and stabilization of this critical ecosystem is Important for balance. It’s not just what you eat for yourself and nutritional support, it’s also what you intake that provides nutrition and balance for trillions of living creatures inside of your GI tract.

Are whole plant extracts better than CBD isolate?
Products infused with a crystalline CBD isolate are available. There is mounting evidence single-molecule CBD is less effective therapeutically than whole plant CBD-rich oil extract. Research supports the idea of the “entourage effect”, where mixtures of cannabinoids, terpenes, and perhaps other molecules such as flavonoids have a greater positive effect together than just CBD or THC alone.

What is the entourage effect?
Proposed mechanism by which cannabis compounds other than tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) act synergistically with it to modulate the overall psychoactive effects of the plant.

Is water soluble CBD better?
Water-soluble forms of CBD are not naturally occurring products. The process making a fat-soluble compound, such as CBD, soluble in water, involves a process called nano-emulsion. Nano-emulsion uses high frequency ultrasound to induce a process called cavitation, in which small, water soluble spheres (called liposomes) are formed. The CBD molecules are suspended in the liposomes which float in the water. Although some manufacturers make claims about how this form of CBD is “enhanced”, there is no data confirming this claim.

Will CBD interact with my other medications?
Low doses of oral CBD products are unlikely to have interactions with other medications. However, it is always possible. This likelihood increases the higher the dose. If you are taking a medication where maintaining a certain blood level is critical- such as anti-seizure, anti-viral, blood-thinning medications- talk with your health care provider or pharmacist before trying CBD.

Consult with health care provider.

Does CBD affect appetite?
CBD has negligible effects on appetite and satiety.